10 Most VSAQ’s of Bacteria Chapter in Inter 2nd Year Botany (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Write briefly on the occurrence of micro organisms.

Microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, are omnipresent and can be found in all types of climates. They exist everywhere around us.

VSAQ-2 : Define microbiology.

Microbiology is a branch of biological science that specializes in the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans.

VSAQ-3 : Name the bacteria which is a common inhabitant of human intestine. How is it used in biotechnology?

Escherichia coli, commonly found in the human intestine, plays a significant role in biotechnology. It is utilized as a host organism in various biotechnological applications, particularly in recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. E. coli serves as a valuable platform for the production of diverse proteins and genetic engineering purposes, making it a fundamental component in biotechnological research and industry.

VSAQ-4 : What are pleomorphic bacteria? Give an example.

Pleomorphic bacteria are microorganisms that have the ability to alter their shape and appearance in response to varying environmental conditions and nutritional factors. One example of a pleomorphic bacterium is Acetobacter.

VSAQ-5 : What is sex pilus? What is its function?

The sex pilus, also referred to as the conjugation tube, is a structure involved in bacterial conjugation. In this process, the donor bacterial cell (F^+) generates the sex pilus, which establishes contact with the recipient cell (F^-). The primary function of the sex pilus is to serve as a bridge through which genetic material, such as plasmids, can be transferred from the donor cell to the recipient cell. This crucial mechanism allows for the exchange of genetic information, contributing significantly to bacterial genetic diversity and adaptability.

VSAQ-6 : What is a genophore?

Genophore, often referred to as the bacterial chromosome, represents the principal genetic material within bacteria. It consists of a single, circular DNA molecule that houses the vital genetic information necessary for the bacterium’s growth, development, and reproductive processes. The genophore encompasses the genes responsible for a wide array of cellular functions and characteristics, playing a pivotal role in shaping the traits and behavior of the bacterial cell.

VSAQ-7 : What is a plasmid? What is its significance?

A plasmid is a self-duplicating, small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that occurs in bacteria and some other organisms. Plasmids are distinct from the bacterial chromosome and can replicate autonomously. They frequently contain supplementary genetic information, including genes for traits like antibiotic resistance.

The significance of plasmids lies in their pivotal role in genetic engineering. They are extensively used as vectors to transfer and express foreign genes in bacteria, serving as essential tools for genetic manipulation. Plasmids enable scientists to introduce specific genes into bacteria, facilitating the production of valuable proteins, the study of gene function, and various biotechnological applications.

VSAQ-8 : What is conjugation? Who discovered it and in which organism?

Conjugation is the mechanism of genetic transfer between two bacterial cells via direct contact. This groundbreaking process was discovered by Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Their discovery of conjugation was a seminal moment in the study of bacterial genetics, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying genetic exchange among bacteria and contributing significantly to the field of microbiology.

VSAQ-9 : What is transformation? Who discovered it and in which organism?

Transformation is the process wherein bacterial cells assimilate naked DNA fragments from their environment. This phenomenon was first discovered by Frederick Griffith while working with the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. His pioneering experiments involving mice in the 1920s not only provided the initial evidence of bacterial transformation but also established the groundwork for the exploration of bacterial genetics, marking a significant milestone in the field of microbiology.

VSAQ-10 : What is transduction? Who discovered it and in which organism?

Transduction is the mechanism for conveying genetic material from one bacterium to another through the use of a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria). The discovery of transduction was credited to Joshua Lederberg and Norton Zinder in the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium during the 1950s. This discovery played a pivotal role in unraveling the mechanisms of genetic information exchange among bacterial cells, significantly advancing the field of bacterial genetics.