6 Most VSAQ’s of Excretion Chapter in Class 10th Biology (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Write any two questions that you will ask your teacher about the Alkaloids.

Two questions to ask a teacher about alkaloids are:

  1. Why are alkaloids considered as secondary metabolites?
  2. How are alkaloids used by humans?

VSAQ-2: Why the nephron is considered to be the structural and functional unit of the kidney?

The nephron is considered the structural and functional unit of the kidney due to the following reasons:

Structural Unit:

Nephrons are responsible for the shape and structure of the kidney. Each kidney contains a vast number of nephrons (more than one million), and they are the building blocks that make up the kidney’s functional tissue.

Functional Unit:

Nephrons are responsible for the main functions of the kidney, which include filtering nitrogenous waste products and excess substances from the blood, as well as reabsorbing essential substances to maintain the body’s balance and regulate water and electrolyte levels.

So, the nephron serves as both the structural and functional unit of the kidney, playing a vital role in the filtration and purification of blood, and ultimately producing urine to remove waste from the body.

VSAQ-3 : Why Vasopressin is not secreted when a person drinks a lot of water?

  1. Water Intake:
    When a person drinks a significant amount of water, the body detects an increase in fluid volume.
  2. Role of Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone):
    Vasopressin, also known as the antidiuretic hormone, is produced by the pituitary gland and acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption and concentrate urine.
  3. Response to Excessive Water Intake:
    In the presence of excessive water intake, the body reduces the secretion of vasopressin, as it doesn’t need to conserve water.
  4. Excretion of Excess Water:
    Reduced vasopressin levels allow the body to efficiently eliminate the excess water through urine, helping maintain the body’s water balance.

VSAQ-4 : Why is urine yellow in color?

  1. Urine Color and Urochrome:
    The statement provided is not accurate. Urine is yellow in color primarily due to the presence of a pigment called urochrome. Urochrome is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, which is found in red blood cells.
  2. Formation and Excretion of Urochrome:
    When red blood cells break down, urochrome is formed and excreted through the urine.
  3. Variation in Urine Color:
    The concentration of urochrome in urine can vary depending on factors such as hydration levels and dietary intake, which can affect the color of urine, ranging from pale yellow to dark amber.

VSAQ-5 : Write two secondary metabolities, which you use in your daily life?


  1. Caffeine as a Secondary Metabolite:
    Caffeine is a secondary metabolite found in coffee, tea, and certain other plants.
  2. Natural Pesticide:
    It serves as a natural pesticide for these plants, helping to deter herbivores.
  3. Caffeine’s Effects on the Nervous System:
    In our daily lives, caffeine is widely consumed for its stimulating effects on the human nervous system.
  4. Enhancing Alertness and Alleviating Fatigue:
    It helps improve alertness and can temporarily alleviate fatigue, making it a common component of beverages like coffee and tea.


  1. Capsaicin as a Secondary Metabolite:
    Capsaicin is another secondary metabolite found in chili peppers.
  2. Deterrent to Herbivores:
    Its primary role is to act as a deterrent to herbivores.
  3. Spicy Sensation in Human Consumption:
    When consumed by humans, capsaicin is responsible for the hot or spicy sensation.
  4. Culinary Use:
    It is used in various cuisines worldwide to add flavor and spice to dishes, and some people enjoy the sensation it provides when consumed.

VSAQ-6 : Write two questions that you ask a doctor to find out complete information about kidney transplantation.

  1. How is a kidney transplanted?
  2. How is a donor selected?