8 Most VSAQ’s of Political Ideologies Chapter in Inter 1st Year Political Science (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system characterized by private ownership of resources and businesses driven by the pursuit of profits. Capitalists prioritize capital accumulation and earnings. However, potential concerns may emerge regarding laborers’ wages and essential amenities due to the emphasis on profit maximization. In a capitalist society, market forces predominantly determine production, prices, and wages, often with minimal government intervention.

VSAQ-2 : Marxism

Marxism is a socio-economic theory highlighting the significance of historical forces, particularly class struggle and economic determinism, in shaping society. It aims to attain socialist objectives through revolutionary methods, sometimes involving violence. Marxists describe their ideology as “Scientific Socialism,” asserting a scientific foundation for comprehending and reshaping society.

VSAQ-3 : Non-Violence

Non-violence is a guiding principle that encourages peaceful and non-aggressive methods, abstaining from violence, harm, or force to accomplish objectives. Central tenets of non-violence encompass truth and fearlessness. This approach prioritizes conflict resolution and the pursuit of justice through peaceful avenues, nurturing comprehension and empathy within individuals and communities.

VSAQ-4 : Civil-disobedience

Civil disobedience is a potent non-violent protest strategy aimed at influencing opponents. It entails the deliberate, peaceful violation of laws or rules as a form of protest against unjust policies or actions. Civil disobedience can be undertaken by individuals or groups to highlight social or political concerns and advocate for positive change. It serves as a method to challenge authority while upholding non-violent principles.

VSAQ-5 : Surplus value

Surplus value, as articulated by Marx, represents the additional value produced by a worker’s labor, surpassing their wages. This surplus value serves as the foundation for capitalist profits, as it results from the exploitation of labor by capitalists to amass greater wealth. Marx contended that industrialization and mechanization estrange workers from their labor, product, and colleagues, fostering an unequal distribution of wealth and power within society.

VSAQ-6 : Satyagraha

Satyagraha, coined by Mahatma Gandhi during his South African activism, translates to “Love Force” or “Soul Force.” Gandhi viewed satyagraha not merely as a philosophical idea but as a pragmatic approach to combat foreign rule and attain social and economic justice. It encompassed nonviolent resistance and passive resistance as methods to instigate societal transformation and rectify injustices. Satyagraha held a pivotal role in India’s fight for independence and remains a source of inspiration for nonviolent movements globally.

VSAQ-7 : Meaning of Socialism

Socialism, described by E.M. Burns, entails the abolition of private ownership and the establishment of collective ownership and control for the benefit of society as a whole. In a socialist framework, significant means of production, distribution, and exchange are owned collectively. This includes the elimination of private entrepreneurs’ profits and the adoption of an alternative approach to distribute wealth more fairly. Socialism aspires to forge a more egalitarian society, characterized by reduced economic disparities and a heightened focus on social welfare and public ownership.

VSAQ-8 : Neo-Liberalism

Neo-liberalism, often referred to as libertarianism, is a contemporary adaptation of classical liberalism characterized by Laissez Faire individualism. It opposes the welfare state, advocates minimal state intervention, and endorses the deregulation of economic activities. Neo-liberalism places a strong emphasis on free-market principles, privatization, and curbing government involvement in the economy. It aims to bolster individual freedoms and asserts that market forces can efficiently allocate resources and foster general economic prosperity.