15 Most VSAQ’s of Morphology of Flowering Plants Chapter in Inter 1st Year Botany (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : What type of specialized roots are found in epiphytic plants? What is their function?

  1. Velamen roots serve to absorb moisture from the atmosphere and rainwater.
  2. They also provide support to the plant as it grows on other surfaces.
  3. These adaptations help epiphytic plants obtain water and nutrients without soil.

VSAQ-2 : How does the sucker of Chrysanthemum differ from the stolon of jasmine?

  1. Chrysanthemum Sucker Characteristics: The sucker of Chrysanthemum is an obliquely growing branch of an underground stem.
  2. Jasmine Stolon Characteristics: The stolon of jasmine is an obliquely growing branch of an aerial stem.
  3. Vegetative Propagation: Both the sucker of Chrysanthemum and the stolon of jasmine play a vital role in vegetative propagation when separated from the parent plant.

VSAQ-3 : Differentiate between Racemose and Cymose inflorescences.

Racemose Inflorescences:

  1. The growth of the main axis is indefinite.
  2. The flowers are arranged in acropetal succession.

Cymose Inflorescences:

  1. The growth of the main axis is limited.
  2. The flowers are arranged in a basipetal succession.

VSAQ-4 : What is the morphology of cup like structure in Cyathium? In which family it is found?

  1. In Cyathium, the cup-like structure is created through the fusion of involucral bracts surrounding the female flower, male flowers, and other associated structures.
  2. Cyathium is a distinctive inflorescence type commonly observed in plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family.

VSAQ-5 : What type of inflorescence is found in fig trees? Why does the insect blastophaga visits the inflorescence of fig tree?

The insect Blastophaga is attracted to the hypanthodium for pollination purposes. As this insect ventures into the fig to deposit its eggs, an inadvertent and essential event occurs: the insect pollinates the flowers situated within the fig. This occurrence creates a mutually beneficial relationship between the fig tree and Blastophaga, where the fig offers a secure environment for the insect’s eggs to develop while facilitating the vital process of pollination.

VSAQ-6 : Differentiate actinomorphic from zygomorphic flower.

Actinomorphic Flowers

  1. Radial Symmetry: Actinomorphic flowers showcase radial symmetry, meaning they can be divided into two equal halves in any vertical plane.
  2. Examples: Notable examples of actinomorphic flowers include Datura and Hibiscus.

Zygomorphic Flowers

  1. Bilateral Symmetry: Zygomorphic flowers, on the other hand, exhibit bilateral symmetry, which means they can only be divided into two equal halves in a single vertical plane.
  2. Examples: Prominent examples of zygomorphic flowers encompass Bean and Pea.

VSAQ-7 : What is meant by epipetalous condition? Give an example.

  1. The epipetalous condition signifies that the stamens are attached to the petals of a flower.
  2. Example: This condition is notably observed in the flowers of Datura and Brinjal, where the stamens are attached to the petals of the flower.

VSAQ-8 : What is meant by pulvinus leaf base? In members of which angiospermic family do you find them?

A pulvinus leaf base refers to a specialized, swollen, and flexible region located at the base of a leaf stalk (petiole) that enables leaf movement. It serves as a hinge-like structure that allows the leaf to change its position or orientation in response to environmental stimuli.

VSAQ-9 : Define venation. How do dicots differ from monocots with respect to venation?

  1. Venation pertains to the pattern of arrangement of veins and veinlets within the lamina (blade) of a leaf.
  2. In dicots (e.g., Hibiscus), reticulate venation is observed, characterized by veinlets forming a network-like pattern across the leaf.
  3. In monocots (e.g., Musa or banana), parallel venation is evident, where veins run parallel to each other from the base to the tip of the leaf, without forming a network.

VSAQ-10 : Define placentation. What type of placentation is found in dianthus?

In Dianthus, the type of placentation is “free central.” In this particular type, the ovules are affixed to a central column or pillar located in the center of the ovary, and there are no partitions or walls that separate the ovules from each other.

VSAQ-11 : What is meant by parthenocarpic fruit? How is it useful?

A parthenocarpic fruit is a fruit that develops without the fertilization of the ovary, meaning it forms without the necessity of pollination and seed formation. Parthenocarpic fruits are highly valuable in several industries, especially in the production of seedless fruits. For instance, commercial production of seedless bananas utilizes parthenocarpy, which makes these fruits more appealing for consumption and easier to process in various sectors like juice production.

VSAQ-12 : Why certain fruits are called false fruits? Name two examples of plants having false fruits.

Certain fruits are termed false fruits because they do not originate from the fertilized ovary of the flower but instead form from other floral parts like the receptacle, calyx, or adjacent structures. Here are two examples of plants with false fruits:

  1. Apple: The edible, fleshy part of the apple we consume develops from the receptacle, not the ovary.
  2. Cashew (Anacardium): In the case of cashew, the true fruit is the cashew nut, while the enlarged, fleshy part known as the cashew apple forms from the pedicel and receptacle, not the ovary.

VSAQ-13 : Define mericarp. In which plant you find it?

Mericarp refers to the one-seeded segment of a schizocarpic fruit that disintegrates into distinct, separate units, each encapsulating a single seed. It is a characteristic feature of schizocarpic fruits, where the carpels divide into individual units upon maturity.

An example of a plant where mericarps are found is the Castor plant (Ricinus communis). The Castor fruit is a schizocarp, and upon reaching maturity, it splits into three separate mericarps, each containing a single seed.

VSAQ-14 : What are aggregate fruits? Give two examples.

Aggregate fruits are produced from a single flower that contains multiple separate carpels, each developing into a small fruitlet. These fruitlets are clustered together to form the aggregate fruit.

Two examples of aggregate fruits include:

  1. Custard Apple (Annona): The fruit of the custard apple is an aggregate fruit composed of numerous fruitlets, each originating from the individual carpels of the flower.
  2. Lotus: The fruit of the lotus plant is also an aggregate fruit. It consists of multiple small seed pods (mericarps), each arising from an individual carpel of the flower and arranged in a circular pattern.

VSAQ-15 : Name a plant that has single fruit developing from the entire inflorescence. What is such a fruit called?

The plant that exhibits a single fruit developing from the entire inflorescence is the Pineapple (Ananas comosus). Such a fruit is referred to as a “Multiple” or “Collective” fruit. The pineapple fruit results from the fusion of numerous individual flowers (fruitlets) within a single inflorescence, and each scale-like structure on the pineapple’s surface represents a single flower that contributes to the composite fruit.