14 Most VSAQ’s of Diversity of Living World Chapter in Inter 1st Year Zoology (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : What does ICZN stand for?

ICZN stands for the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, which is a set of rules and guidelines used by zoologists and taxonomists to establish a standardized system for naming and classifying animals. It ensures each species has a unique scientific name, aiding in identification and study within the animal kingdom, thus promoting consistency and accuracy in scientific classification.


VSAQ-2 : What is biogenesis?

Biogenesis is a fundamental theory of evolution that asserts “life begets life.” In essence, it posits that living organisms come into existence from pre-existing living organisms, rejecting the notion of spontaneous generation, which proposed that life could arise from non-living matter.

Biogenesis is a cornerstone principle in biology, emphasizing that all living entities originate from other living beings through processes such as reproduction or cell division.


VSAQ-3 : Define the term histology. What is it otherwise called?

Histology, also known as Microanatomy, is the study of microscopic tissue structure in living organisms. It involves the examination of tissues and cells under a microscope to understand their organization and functions.


VSAQ-4 : What is trinomial nomenclature? Give an example.

Trinomial nomenclature is a naming system for organisms that employs three words to specify the genus, species, and subspecies, allowing for a more precise identification of subspecies within a species.

An example of trinomial nomenclature is “Homo sapiens sapiens,” where:

  1. “Homo” denotes the genus,
  2. The first “sapiens” signifies the species, and
  3. The second “sapiens” designates the subspecies.

VSAQ-5 : What is meant by tautonymy? Give two examples.

Tautonymy refers to the practice of using the same word for both the generic name and the specific name in the scientific name of an organism.

Two examples of tautonymy include:

  1. Naja naja – The Indian cobra
  2. Axis axis – Spotted deer

VSAQ-6 : Differentiate between Protostomia and Deuterostomia.

Protostomia:

  1. In Protostomia, the blastopore develops into the mouth during embryonic development.
  2. Examples of Protostomia include Annelida (e.g., earthworms), Arthropoda (e.g., insects), and Mollusca (e.g., snails).

Deuterostomia:

  1. Deuterostomia are eumetazoans in which the anus is formed from or near the blastopore.
  2. Examples of Deuterostomia include Echinodermata (e.g., starfish), Hemichordata (e.g., acorn worms), and Chordata (e.g., vertebrates like humans).

VSAQ-7 : What is ecological diversity? Mention the different types of ecological diversities.

Ecological diversity is the measure of diversity within ecosystems in a specific region. It can be categorized into three types:

  1. Alpha diversity: Alpha diversity is based on the number of species or taxa within a single ecosystem. It quantifies the diversity within a particular habitat or ecosystem.
  2. Beta diversity: Beta diversity focuses on the differences in species or taxa between two adjacent ecosystems. It measures the turnover or change in species composition as one moves from one ecosystem to another.
  3. Gamma diversity: Gamma diversity refers to the overall diversity of various ecosystems in an ecological region with natural boundaries. It provides a comprehensive view of diversity across an entire landscape or geographical area.

VSAQ-8 : Define species richness.

Species richness is the total number of different species present in a specific area or ecosystem. It serves as a fundamental measure of biodiversity, with higher species richness indicating a greater diversity of species within a particular habitat.

Mathematically, species richness can be estimated using the formula: Log S = log C + Z log A, where S represents species richness, A is the area, Z is the slope of the line, and C is the y-intercept. This formula is commonly used to model and estimate species richness in ecological studies.


VSAQ-9 : List out any four sacred groves in India.

List four sacred groves in India:

  1. Khasi and Jaintia Hills – Located in Meghalaya.
  2. Aravalli Hills – Found in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  3. Sarguja and Bastar – Situated in Chhattisgarh.
  4. Chanda – Located in Madhya Pradesh.

VSAQ-10 : Write the full form of IUCN. In which book threatened species are enlisted.

IUCN stands for the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Threatened species are enlisted in the ‘Red Data Book‘ of IUCN.


VSAQ-11 : Define the term metabolism. Give any one example.

Metabolism is the sum of chemical reactions occurring within cells to sustain life and cellular processes. It includes catabolism (breaking down complex molecules for energy) and anabolism (synthesizing molecules for cellular functions).

An example is photosynthesis in plants, where light energy converts into chemical energy, producing glucose from carbon dioxide and water.


VSAQ-12 : How do you differentiate between growth in a living organism and non-living object?

Growth in Living Organisms:

  1. Results from cell division and enlargement.
  2. Occurs inside the body.
  3. Exclusive to living beings.
  4. Continuous in plants, limited in animals.

Growth in Non-Living Objects:

  1. Occurs through accretion or accumulation from the outside.
  2. Lacks cells and reproduction ability.
  3. Determined by external factors, not a sign of life.

VSAQ-13 : ‘Zoos are tools for classification’ Explain.

  1. Observation and Study: Providing a controlled setting for observing and studying animals.
  2. Systematic Positioning: Helping classify animals into taxonomic groups.
  3. Comparative Analysis: Allowing scientists to identify similarities among species.
  4. Species Conservation: Contributing to understanding diversity and conservation through breeding programs.

VSAQ-14 : Where and how do we preserve skeletons of animals, dry specimens etc?

Preservation of skeletons and dry specimens of animals typically occurs in museums, institutions dedicated to collecting, preserving, and exhibiting objects of scientific, historical, or cultural significance.

The preservation process involves:

  1. Cleaning and Preparation: Animal skeletons undergo a meticulous process of cleaning, bleaching, and articulation before exhibition. This process removes flesh and tissue, preserving the bones and arranging them in their natural positions.
  2. Taxidermy for Specimens: Dry specimens like animal skins or parts are preserved through taxidermy. In this process, the animal’s skin is carefully removed, treated, and mounted on a mannequin to maintain its lifelike appearance.