11 Most VSAQ’s of Agricultural Sector Chapter in Inter 2nd Year Commerce (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Share of Agriculture in the National Income.

The share of agriculture and allied activities in India’s GDP has seen a substantial decline over the years. A historical breakdown of this trend includes:

  1. World War I: During World War I, agriculture accounted for two-thirds of the national income.
  2. Post-Independence Planning Phase: After India gained independence and entered the planning phase, the share of agriculture began to decrease as the secondary and tertiary sectors grew.
  3. 1950-51: In 1950-51, agriculture’s share in GDP stood at 56.5%.
  4. 2012-13: However, by 2012-13, this share had reduced significantly to 13.9%.

VSAQ-2 : Agricultural Productivity (OR) What is Agricultural Productivity?

Agricultural productivity is a crucial measure that reflects the average crop production achieved per hectare of cultivated land. In India, the adoption of modern agricultural practices, including the use of hybrid seeds and advanced farming techniques, has played a pivotal role in significantly boosting agricultural productivity. This increase in productivity can be attributed to the successful implementation of new agricultural strategies and approaches in the country.

VSAQ-3 : Land Degradation.

Land degradation is a critical issue characterized by the deterioration in the quality of soil, water, and vegetation, primarily driven by human activities. In India, approximately 43% of the land is affected by land degradation, resulting in substantial yield losses that can range from 33% to 67%. Moreover, around 5% of the country’s land is severely damaged and rendered unsuitable for agricultural use. This situation poses a substantial challenge to the sustainability of agriculture and environmental conservation efforts in India.

VSAQ-4 : Green Revolution (OR) What is Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution was a transformative period in Indian agriculture spanning from 1960 to 1980. It represented a remarkable increase in crop yields and is commonly known as the ‘Golden Era’ of Indian agriculture. This revolution was distinguished by the widespread adoption of new agricultural techniques and technologies, such as the utilization of high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and improved irrigation methods. These innovations played a pivotal role in boosting crop production, thus significantly contributing to India’s food security and economic growth during that era.

VSAQ-5 : Buffer stock (OR) What is Buffer stock?

Buffer stock signifies a reserve of essential commodities, notably food grains, procured and maintained by the government. Its primary purpose is to regulate market prices. During periods of abundant harvests and consequently low prices, the government acquires surplus produce. Conversely, during times of shortage or increased demand, this stock is released into the market to stabilize prices and guarantee a consistent supply. Buffer stocks play a critical role in safeguarding price stability and ensuring food security within a nation.

VSAQ-6 : Warehousing facilities.

Warehousing facilities are pivotal in the storage and preservation of agricultural produce. The establishment of the Central Warehousing Corporation in 1957 aimed to provide storage solutions and mitigate distress sales by small and marginal farmers. State warehousing corporations and the Food Corporation of India (FCI) have also been instituted to enhance storage infrastructure.

As of December 31, 2018, the FCI boasted a storage capacity of 851.54 lakh metric tonnes, making a substantial contribution to preserve and store agricultural produce. These warehousing facilities are indispensable in ensuring food security and minimizing agricultural wastage.

VSAQ-7 : Food security (OR) Concept of food security.

Food security
, as a crucial concept, centers on ensuring universal access to an adequate quantity of food for maintaining a healthy and active life. The World Development Report (1986) defines food security as the availability of sufficient food for every person, consistently, to support a healthy and productive life. Similarly, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1983) characterizes it as the assurance that individuals possess both physical and economic access to the essential food they require.

To establish a food-secure environment, it is imperative to cultivate a resilient food system capable of providing a stable and nutritionally balanced food supply for the entire population over the long term. This concept serves as the cornerstone for addressing global challenges associated with hunger, malnutrition, and overall well-being.

VSAQ-8 : Regional Rural Banks (RRB).

Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established in rural areas with the primary objective of addressing credit needs across various segments of the rural population. These segments include landless laborers, artisans, small and marginal farmers, and other rural residents. The formation of RRBs was recommended by the Working Group on Rural Banks, led by M. Narasimham. Initially, five RRBs commenced operations on October 2, 1975, and this number subsequently expanded to 196 RRBs.

RRBs assume a critical role in extending financial support to the agricultural sector and rural communities. During the fiscal year 2012-13, RRBs made a significant contribution to institutional credit within the agriculture sector, accounting for 10.5% of the total credit, which amounted to 63,681 crores.

VSAQ-9 : Co-operative Farming.

Co-operative farming represents a land reform initiative undertaken by the Indian government. In this arrangement, smallholding farmers within a specific region voluntarily merge their land holdings by pooling their individual lands. An elected body is entrusted with the responsibility of managing and overseeing the operations of the co-operative farm. However, the success of co-operative farming has been uneven and challenged by various factors, including limited motivation among farmers, inefficient resource allocation, and administrative inefficacies.

VSAQ-10 : Grading.

Grading is a fundamental process that involves the classification of agricultural products according to their quality. This practice is integral to the improvement and efficiency of the agricultural marketing system. In India, the government has instituted grading stations as per the Agricultural Produce Act of 1937. Products that bear the AGMARK seal from the Agricultural Marketing Department are typically in high demand within the market because they provide reliable assurances of quality and standards.

VSAQ-11 : Rural Indebtedness.

Rural indebtedness in India is a pressing concern, with a substantial number of rural residents resorting to borrowing money from money lenders at exorbitant interest rates. These loans are frequently utilized for non-productive purposes. The challenging task of repaying these loans has transformed rural indebtedness into a persistent issue, with individuals often caught in a cycle of long-term debt.