23 Most VSAQ’s of Applied Biology Chapter in Inter 2nd Year Zoology (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : What factors constitute dairying?

Dairying involves

  1. Taking care of milk animals by breeding, feeding, and proper management.
  2. Producing, processing, and marketing milk and milk products in an economically viable manner.

VSAQ-2 : Mention any two advantages of inbreeding.

Advantages of inbreeding

  1. Increases homozygosity, leading to the production of a pure line of animals.
  2. Facilitates the accumulation of superior genes and elimination of undesirable genes.

VSAQ-3 : Distinguish between out-cross and cross-breed.

Differences between outcross and cross-breed

  1. Outcross:
    • Mating of animals of the same breed without any common ancestors in their 4-6 generation pedigree.
    • The resulting offspring is called an outcross.
  2. Cross-breed:
    • Involves mating superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed.
    • The offspring from this mating are referred to as cross-breeds.

VSAQ-4 : Define the terms layer and broiler.

Layer and broiler definitions

  1. Layer:
    • Layers are birds specifically raised for egg production.
    • They are selected and bred for their ability to produce a high number of eggs.
    • Layers are not typically raised for meat, as their meat quality may not be as desirable as that of broilers.
  2. Broiler:
    • Broilers are birds raised for meat production.
    • They are selectively bred to grow rapidly and efficiently convert feed into muscle (meat).
    • Broilers are typically ready for slaughter at a much younger age (usually 8 to 10 weeks) compared to layers.

VSAQ-5 : What is Apiculture?

Apiculture is the practice of beekeeping, which involves the maintenance of bee colonies or beehives for various purposes, including the production of honey, beeswax, pollen, royal jelly, and other bee-related products. Beekeepers, known as apiarists, manage and care for bee colonies, ensuring their health and productivity. Apiculture plays a crucial role in agriculture and the production of honeybee-related goods.

VSAQ-6 : Define the term Fishery.

Fishery refers to the occupation or industry related to the harvesting, processing, storage, and marketing of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic organisms for various purposes, including human consumption, animal feed, and industrial applications. This industry encompasses activities such as commercial fishing, aquaculture, fish processing, and trade in seafood products. Fishery plays a vital role in providing a source of protein and employment for many people worldwide.

VSAQ-7 : Differentiate Aquaculture and Pisciculture.

Aquaculture and pisciculture are distinct practices within the field of controlled aquatic cultivation:

  1. Aquaculture is a comprehensive term encompassing the cultivation of various aquatic organisms, including fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants, for purposes such as food production, conservation, and stocking.
  2. Pisciculture is a subset of aquaculture solely dedicated to the cultivation and breeding of fin fish, primarily for human consumption.

VSAQ-8 : Explain the term Hypophysation.

Hypophysation, also referred to as induced breeding, is a method employed in aquaculture for the artificial reproduction of fish. It entails the injection of substances like pituitary extract or ovaprim into brood fish. These substances contain hormones that induce the fish to spawn, thereby facilitating controlled and enhanced seed production. Hypophysation is a valuable technique for fish farmers and hatcheries as it allows for better control over the timing and quantity of fish reproduction, ultimately contributing to increased fish stock and production.

VSAQ-9 : List out any two Indian carps and two exotic carps.

  1. Indian carps: Catla catla and Labeo rohita
  2. Exotic carps: Grass carp and Silver carp

VSAQ-10 : Mention any four fish by-products.

Fish by-products

  1. Fish meal
  2. Fish oil
  3. Fish collagen
  4. Fish scales (used in cosmetics and supplements)

VSAQ-11 : Define the term ‘vaccine’.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that contains weakened or inactivated disease-causing agents or their components. It is administered to stimulate the immune system and create immunity against a particular disease, protecting the individual from future infections. Vaccines have played a crucial role in preventing and controlling various infectious diseases.

VSAQ-12 : What does ADA stand for? Deficiency of ADA causes which disease?

ADA stands for Adenosine Deaminase. Deficiency of ADA causes Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), a rare genetic disorder that severely impairs the immune system, leaving affected individuals vulnerable to severe and life-threatening infections.

VSAQ-13 : Define the term Transgenic Animal.

Transgenic animals are animals whose DNA has been genetically manipulated to contain and express an additional gene from another organism. For example, α-1 antitrypsin, a human protein, can be inserted into animals to produce this beneficial protein.

VSAQ-14 : What is popularly called ‘Guardian Angel of Cell’s Genome’?

The P^53 gene is popularly called the “Guardian Angel of Cell’s Genome.” It is a tumor-suppressing gene that helps protect the integrity of the cell’s DNA. It plays a crucial role in stopping the cell cycle at the ‘G_1 checkpoint‘ to allow for the repair of damaged DNA, preventing the formation and growth of cancerous cells.

VSAQ-15 : List out any four features of Cancer cells.

Features of cancer cells

  1. Uncontrolled Growth: Cancer cells grow and divide rapidly, leading to the formation of tumors.
  2. Metastasis: Cancer cells can detach from the original tumor and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
  3. Loss of Contact Inhibition: Cancer cells lose the ability to stop growing when they come into contact with neighboring cells, leading to overcrowding.
  4. Avoiding Apoptosis: Cancer cells can evade programmed cell death (apoptosis) that normally removes damaged or abnormal cells.
  5. Angiogenesis: Cancer cells can stimulate the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) to supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

VSAQ-16 : What is Tomogram?

A tomogram is a specialized medical imaging technique that creates cross-sectional images of the body using X-rays. It provides a 3-dimensional view of the internal structures, allowing doctors to locate blood clots, tumors, fractures in the head, and assess bone density. CAT scan (Computerized Axial Tomography) is commonly used to perform tomography.

VSAQ-17 : MRI scan is harmless-justify.

MRI scan, which stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, is considered harmless and safe for several reasons:

  1. No ionizing radiation: Unlike X-rays and CT scans, MRI does not use ionizing radiation to produce images. Instead, it uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed pictures of the body’s internal structures.
  2. Non-invasive: MRI is a non-invasive imaging technique, meaning it does not require any injections or exposure to potentially harmful substances.
  3. No known side effects: There are no known harmful side effects of MRI, making it a safe option for medical imaging.
  4. Versatile and precise: MRI can provide detailed images of soft tissues, organs, and structures, making it a valuable tool for diagnosing various medical conditions.

VSAQ-18 : What is electrocardiography and what are the normal components of ECG?

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a medical procedure used to record the electrical activity of the heart, helping diagnose various heart conditions and irregularities.

The normal components of an ECG include

  1. Waves: ECG graphs display different waves, denoted as P, Q, R, S, and T, representing various phases of the heart’s electrical activity.
  2. Intervals: Intervals represent the time between specific waves. The P-R interval measures the time from the start of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex, while the Q-T interval measures the time from the start of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave.
  3. Segments: Segments are flat areas between waves. The S-T segment is the flat area between the S wave and the T wave.
  4. Complexes: The QRS complex represents the ventricles’ depolarization (contraction).

VSAQ-19 : What does prolonged P-R interval indicate?

A prolonged P-R interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) indicates a delay in the conduction of electrical impulses from the sinoatrial (S.A.) node to the atrioventricular (A.V.) node in the heart.

The P-R interval represents the time it takes for the electrical signal to travel from the S.A. node, which is the natural pacemaker of the heart, to the A.V. node, which acts as a bridge for the electrical signal to pass from the atria to the ventricles. In a normal ECG, the P-R interval falls within the range of 0.12 to 0.2 seconds.

A prolonged P-R interval suggests that there may be a delay or blockage in the electrical conduction between these two nodes. This can be caused by various heart conditions, such as atrioventricular block, which can be of different degrees (first-degree, second-degree, or third-degree block). The specific diagnosis and appropriate treatment would depend on the severity and underlying cause of the prolonged P-R interval.

VSAQ-20 : Differentiate between primary and secondary antibodies.

Primary antibodies are directly generated to bind to specific antigens of interest, such as proteins, on the surface of cells or tissues. They are raised in animals, like rabbits or mice, by exposing them to the target antigen, and their binding specificity allows them to recognize and attach to the antigen.

Secondary antibodies, on the other hand, do not directly bind to antigens. Instead, they are produced in response to a specific animal’s primary antibodies. Secondary antibodies recognize and bind to the constant region of primary antibodies, allowing for signal amplification and detection. They are used in various laboratory techniques, like Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, to help visualize the presence and localization of the primary antibody-antigen complex.

VSAQ-21 : Which substances in a sample are detected by direct and indirect ELISA respectively?

In a direct ELISA, the primary antibody is directly linked to the enzyme (e.g., horseradish peroxidase) and is used to detect the presence of specific antigens in the sample.

In an indirect ELISA, the primary antibody is first added to bind to the specific antigen in the sample. Then, a secondary antibody, which is linked to the enzyme, is added to bind to the primary antibody. This secondary antibody-enzyme complex allows for signal amplification, making it easier to detect the presence of antibodies in the sample.

VSAQ-22 : How many amino acids and polypetide chains are present in insulin?

Insulin is a hormone composed of two polypeptide chains, A and B, connected by disulfide bonds. The A chain consists of 21 amino acids, and the B chain consists of 30 amino acids, making a total of 51 amino acids in the insulin molecule. The arrangement and structure of these chains are vital for the biological activity of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels.

VSAQ-23 : Mention any two features of PCR.

  1. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is a highly sensitive technique used for amplifying DNA.
  2. PCR can amplify specific DNA segments from a complex mixture.