10 Most VSAQ’s of Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Chapter in Inter 2nd Year Botany (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : What is meant by ‘Hidden Hunger’?

Hidden hunger describes a type of malnutrition characterized by an individual’s dietary intake that may supply sufficient calories but lacks essential micronutrients, including vitamins and minerals. This deficiency often remains unnoticed as it may not cause immediate, visible symptoms. Nonetheless, hidden hunger can lead to severe health consequences, hindering proper growth, development, and overall well-being over time. The term “hidden” stems from the deficiency’s inconspicuous nature, which may result in inadequate awareness and insufficient action to combat the problem.

VSAQ-2 : Name two semi-dwarf varieties of rice developed in india.

Jaya and Ratna are two semi-dwarf rice varieties developed in India. These varieties were instrumental in the Green Revolution, leading to enhanced rice production within the country.

VSAQ-3 : Give two examples of wheat varieties introduced in india, which are high yielding and disease resistant.

Sonalika and Kalyan Sona are two examples of high-yielding and disease-resistant wheat varieties introduced in India. These varieties have significantly contributed to boosting wheat production and ensuring food security in the country.

VSAQ-4 : Give two examples of fungi used in SCP production.

Candida utilis (Torula yeast) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) are two examples of fungi commonly used in Single Cell Protein (SCP) production. These fungi are known for their high protein content and can be cultivated on various organic materials, making them valuable sources of protein for animal feed and other industrial purposes.

VSAQ-5 : Which two species of sugarcane were crossed for better yield?

Saccharum barberi and Saccharum officinarum were crossed to improve sugarcane yield and create hybrid varieties with desirable characteristics. This crossbreeding strategy has been fundamental in sugarcane breeding programs to develop more productive and resilient sugarcane varieties.

VSAQ-6 : Define totipotency and explant.

Totipotency is the remarkable ability of a single plant cell to regenerate and develop into an entire plant, including all the specialized cell types found in a mature organism. This characteristic makes plant cells unique in their capacity to differentiate and give rise to various tissues and organs.

An explant refers to a small piece or portion of a plant, such as a leaf, stem, or root, that is removed and placed in a culture medium under controlled conditions to initiate tissue culture. Explants serve as the starting material for in vitro propagation and regeneration of plants. The culture medium provides the necessary nutrients and growth regulators to stimulate the growth and development of the explant into a whole plant through processes like organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis.

VSAQ-7 : Define micropropagation and somaclones.

is a biotechnological method to produce genetically identical plants from small plant tissue pieces in a lab. It’s used for rapid plant multiplication.

Somaclones are plants generated through tissue culture, genetically identical to the source plant. They’re useful in breeding and trait propagation without traditional seeds or cuttings.

VSAQ-8 : What is meant by Germplasm collection?

Germplasm collection is the gathering and preservation of genetic material (seeds, plants, tissues) from a particular crop or species. It preserves genetic diversity and serves as a resource for breeding and research.

VSAQ-9 : What is meant by Biofortification?

Biofortification is the enhancement of crop nutritional value through breeding or genetic modification. It targets vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients to combat hidden hunger and improve human health.

VSAQ-10 : Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

Apical and axillary meristems are ideal for producing virus-free plants through meristem culture. These regions are free from viruses and contain actively dividing cells, reducing the risk of viral contamination.