15 Most VSAQ’s of Microbes in Human Welfare Chapter in Inter 2nd Year Botany (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Why does ‘Swiss cheese’ have big holes. Name the bacteria responsible for it.

The large holes in Swiss cheese, also known as “eyes,” are formed due to the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas during the cheese fermentation process. This gas is generated by bacteria, particularly Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspecies shermanii, which is added during fermentation. The CO2 gas forms pockets in the cheese, resulting in the distinctive holes.

VSAQ-2 : What are Fermentors?

Fermentors, also referred to as bioreactors, are specialized vessels designed for the large-scale production of various products through fermentation processes. These vessels provide a controlled environment for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or fungi, under optimal conditions for the production of a wide range of valuable products, including beverages, antibiotics, enzymes, and biofuels. In a fermentor, various parameters are carefully controlled, including temperature, pH levels, dissolved oxygen concentration, agitation, and nutrient supply, to ensure the efficient and consistent production of the desired substances.

VSAQ-3 : Name a microbe used for statin production. How do statins lower blood cholesterol level?

The microbe used for statin production is Monascus purpureus yeast, employed in the production of lovastatin, a type of statin medication. Statins function by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase in the liver. This enzyme is essential for the synthesis of cholesterol in the body. By blocking HMG-CoA reductase, statins reduce the production of cholesterol, leading to lower blood cholesterol levels. This mechanism helps prevent the accumulation of plaque in the arteries, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke.

VSAQ-4 : Why do we prefer to call secondary waste water treatment as biological treatment?

The Green Revolution refers to the significant increase in agricultural production achieved through the adoption of high-yielding varieties of crops, modern agricultural techniques, and improved management practices. Norman Borlaug, an American agronomist, is widely regarded as the Father of the Green Revolution for his pioneering work in developing disease-resistant and high-yielding wheat varieties, which played a crucial role in alleviating food shortages and improving food security in many parts of the world.

VSAQ-5 : What is Nucleopolyhedrovirus is being used for now a days?

Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) are being used for biological control of insect pests in integrated pest management (IPM) programs. These viruses are specific to certain insect species and are used as biopesticides to control pest populations in a targeted and environmentally friendly manner. By infecting and killing the pest insects, NPVs help reduce the reliance on chemical pesticides and promote sustainable pest management practices.

VSAQ-6 : Write the most important characteristic that Aspergillus niger, Clostridium butylicum and Lactobacillus share.

Aspergillus niger, Clostridium butylicum, and Lactobacillus all share the important characteristic of being acid producers. Specifically, Aspergillus niger produces citric acid, Clostridium butylicum produces butyric acid, and Lactobacillus produces lactic acid. These microorganisms play a crucial role in various industrial processes for the production of organic acids, which find wide-ranging applications across different industries.

VSAQ-7 : Name any two genetically modified crops.

Two examples of genetically modified crops are Bt-cotton and Bt-brinjal. Bt-cotton has been genetically engineered to express a toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), providing resistance against specific pests. Similarly, Bt-brinjal has been modified to incorporate the Bt toxin to protect it from insect pests.

VSAQ-8 : Name any two industrially important enzymes.

Two examples of industrially important enzymes are Amylase and Lipase. Amylase is used to break down starch into sugars and finds applications in food processing and brewing industries. Lipases hydrolyze fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol, with applications in the food industry and detergent production.

VSAQ-9 : Name an immune suppressive agent, From where it is obtained?

An example of an immunosuppressive agent is Cyclosporin A, which is obtained from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum. It is used to prevent the rejection of organ transplants and treat autoimmune diseases.

VSAQ-10 : What is the group of bacteria found in both the rumen of cattle and sludge of sewage treatment?

In both the rumen of cattle and the sludge of sewage treatment plants, a group of microorganisms known as methanogens is found. These bacteria belong to the domain Archaea and are known for their ability to produce methane gas as a byproduct of their metabolism. Methanogens play a role in breaking down organic materials in the rumen of cattle and participate in anaerobic digestion in sewage treatment plants.

VSAQ-11 : Name the scientists who were credited for showing the role of penicillin as an antibiotic.

Alexander Fleming is credited with the discovery of penicillin in 1928. However, it was the work of Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Florey in the 1940s that established the role of penicillin as a powerful antibiotic. They conducted extensive research and successfully purified and produced penicillin in sufficient quantities for medical use, saving countless lives during World War II and beyond.

VSAQ-12 : Give any two microbes that are used in biotechnology.

Two microbes that are widely used in biotechnology are Escherichia coli (E. coli), which serves as a host organism for the production of recombinant proteins and DNA cloning, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, utilized for gene transfer into plants through its Ti plasmid, enabling genetic engineering in the plant kingdom.

VSAQ-13 : In which food you find lactic acid bacteria? Name the bacterium.

Lactic acid bacteria are commonly found in milk, and one of the common bacteria involved in milk fermentation is Lactobacillus, which produces lactic acid and contributes to the formation of curd.

VSAQ-14 : Name any two fungi which are used in production of antibiotics.

Penicillium notatum is utilized in the production of penicillin, one of the most widely used antibiotics. Penicillium griseofulvum is employed in the production of griseofulvin, an antibiotic used to treat fungal infections of the skin and nails.

VSAQ-15 : How has the discovery of antibiotics helped mankind in field of medicine?

Discovery of antibiotics has revolutionized medicine by effectively treating bacterial infections and controlling the spread of deadly diseases. Antibiotics have reduced mortality rates and improved overall health outcomes, making them one of the most significant medical advancements in history. However, responsible antibiotic use is crucial to prevent antibiotic resistance and ensure their continued effectiveness.