25 Most VSAQ’s of Political Concepts Chapter in Inter 1st Year Political Science (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Explain the origin of the term ‘Law’.

The term ‘Law’ originates from the Teutonic word “Lag,” which means “to lay” or “to set.” It refers to an external code of conduct enforced through a system of compulsion.

VSAQ-2 : Define the concept of “Rule of Law”. (OR) Define the term “Rule of Law”. (OR) What is ‘Rule of law.

The Rule of Law is a concept that signifies the equality of all individuals before the law and the principle that no one should be subjected to arbitrary or unjust punishment. It represents one of the fundamental values of a democratic system, ensuring that the legal system is transparent, fair, and just. Under the Rule of Law, everyone, including government officials, is bound by and accountable to the law, and legal processes are applied consistently and without discrimination. This concept safeguards individual rights, promotes justice, and upholds the democratic principles of a society.

VSAQ-3 : What is Constitutional Law.

Constitutional law encompasses the fundamental principles and rules that govern the functioning of a state’s government. It delineates the powers and functions of the government, guided by both written and unwritten constitutional principles. Typically, a “constituent assembly” is responsible for formulating and establishing this crucial body of laws. Constitutional law serves as the cornerstone of a nation’s legal system, providing the framework for government structure, operations, and the protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms.

VSAQ-4 : Define Public Law.

Public law pertains to the legal relationships between the state and individuals, focusing on the fundamental structure and functions of the state. It encompasses the rights and obligations of citizens that must be upheld and respected by the state. Any infringement of these rights can result in legal consequences. Public law is further categorized into administrative law and general law, with administrative law dealing specifically with the actions and decisions of government agencies and officials.

VSAQ-5 : What do you mean by the term ‘Equity’? (OR) Define the term equity.

Equity is a concept that embodies fairness and justice, deeply rooted in the principles of natural justice. It involves the creation and application of laws and legal principles based on inherent fairness and equality. Additionally, it may entail reforming existing laws and systems to ensure that justice is accessible to all individuals without discrimination or bias. Equity seeks to remedy situations where strict adherence to existing legal rules may lead to unjust outcomes, emphasizing fairness and the spirit of justice in legal decision-making.

VSAQ-6 : What are the Scientific Commentaries?

Scientific commentaries are instrumental in influencing and shaping the development of legal systems. They comprise the viewpoints, opinions, and scholarly works of distinguished jurists, judges, and legal experts. These commentaries serve as valuable resources for the evaluation and enhancement of laws by identifying deficiencies and suggesting remedies.

VSAQ-7 : What do you mean by Civil Liberty?

Civil liberty refers to the freedom enjoyed by individuals within the boundaries of the law and the state. It enables citizens to exercise their rights and liberties while being integral members of society. Civil liberty encompasses three key aspects: physical freedom (freedom of movement), intellectual freedom (freedom of thought, expression, and belief), and practical freedom (the freedom to make choices in daily life).

VSAQ-8 : Write about Political Liberty?

Political liberty is a facet of liberty closely linked to civil liberty, emphasizing active participation in the political processes of the state, especially in democratic systems. It grants individuals various political rights, including the right to vote, the right to stand as candidates in elections, the right to hold public office, and the right to express political criticism. Political liberty empowers citizens to influence the governance and policies of their country, ensuring their voices are acknowledged and their interests are represented in the decision-making process. It is a fundamental component of democratic societies, fostering civic engagement and shaping the course of political affairs.

VSAQ-9 : What is Economic Liberty?

Economic liberty denotes the right of every citizen to engage in economic pursuits and earn a livelihood without undue interference. It holds substantial importance in democratic societies, as it upholds the principles of democracy by enabling individuals to meet their fundamental needs, including access to food, shelter, and employment, free from the threat of deprivation. Economic liberty grants citizens the freedom to enhance their economic well-being and actively contribute to the nation’s overall growth and prosperity. It is an essential component of a democratic and just society, fostering individual self-reliance and economic empowerment.

VSAQ-10 : Mention any four safeguards of Liberty.

  1. Legal Protections: Ensuring that laws and legal frameworks are in place to protect individual rights and liberties, preventing arbitrary government actions.
  2. Checks and Balances: Implementing a system of checks and balances among government branches to prevent any single entity from accumulating excessive power.
  3. Independent Judiciary: Maintaining an independent and impartial judiciary that can review and adjudicate government actions to safeguard individual rights.
  4. Guaranteed Fundamental Rights: Enshrining fundamental rights in a constitution or legal documents to shield citizens from infringement upon their liberties by the state or other entities.

VSAQ-11 : Give any two definitions of liberty. (OR) Any two definitions of ‘liberty’.

  1. Negative Liberty: Negative liberty refers to the absence of external constraints or interference on an individual’s actions. It emphasizes freedom from external coercion or restrictions, allowing individuals to make choices without undue influence or limitations.
  2. Positive Liberty: Positive liberty, on the other hand, pertains to the capacity and opportunity for individuals to pursue their own goals and fulfill their potential. It focuses on the presence of enabling conditions that empower individuals to actively exercise their freedom and make meaningful choices in their lives.

VSAQ-12 : What is economic equality?

Economic equality entails the eradication of economic disparities related to income, property, and wealth. It serves as a cornerstone for achieving social and political equality. According to Professor Laski, it encompasses the elimination of unbridled and unaccountable control in the industrial realm. Economic equality strives to provide equal opportunities for individuals to earn a living and enhance their economic well-being. Its goal is to establish a society in which all members have equal access to economic prospects and resources, fostering a more equitable and just socioeconomic environment.

VSAQ-13 : How liberty is Essential for Equality?

  1. Enables Freedom of Choice: Liberty allows individuals to make choices freely, empowering them to pursue their goals and aspirations.
  2. Protects Individual Rights: It safeguards fundamental rights, ensuring that no one is deprived of their liberties, and lays the groundwork for equal treatment under the law.
  3. Fosters Social Mobility: Liberty empowers individuals to improve their socioeconomic status, facilitating upward mobility and reducing disparities.
  4. Ensures Equal Opportunities: It guarantees equal access to opportunities, promoting a society where everyone has a fair chance at success.

VSAQ-14 : What is Equality of opportunity?

Equality of opportunity entails affording every individual an equal opportunity to thrive and realize their full potential, irrespective of their background or conditions. It centers on establishing an equitable platform where individuals can nurture their talents and capabilities to the utmost degree. Equality of opportunity does not ensure uniform outcomes but strives to eradicate unjust hindrances and foster fairness in accessing opportunities. It seeks to level the playing field, enabling individuals to pursue their aspirations without undue disadvantages based on factors beyond their control.

VSAQ-15 : Mention the different types of equality.

  1. Equality of Opportunity: Providing individuals with an equal chance to succeed regardless of their background or circumstances.
  2. Equality Before the Law: Ensuring all individuals are subject to the same legal standards and have equal access to the justice system.
  3. Equality of Outcome: Aiming to achieve equal results or outcomes in terms of income, wealth, and other socioeconomic factors.
  4. Social Equality: Eliminating social hierarchies, discrimination, and disparities in social status.
  5. Economic Equality: Reducing income and wealth disparities, ensuring access to economic resources and opportunities.
  6. Political Equality: Granting all citizens equal political rights, such as the right to vote and participate in the democratic process.

VSAQ-16 : What is Equality?

Equality is a fundamental principle centered on fairness and justice, entailing the equal and equitable treatment of all individuals. It encompasses the provision of identical rights, opportunities, and treatment to every person, devoid of any discrimination related to factors like race, gender, religion, or social status. Equality seeks to establish a society where every individual has an equal opportunity to excel and prosper, thereby ensuring that no one faces exclusion or disadvantage based on arbitrary distinctions. It promotes the idea that all members of society should be accorded equal respect and dignity.

VSAQ-17 : Define Justice.

Justice embodies the principle of fairness and impartiality in the treatment of individuals, as well as in the allocation of resources and opportunities within a society. It revolves around the preservation of the rights and freedoms of all individuals, guaranteeing equitable treatment and the unbiased application of the rule of law. Justice strives to establish a society marked by harmony and equilibrium, where individuals are answerable for their conduct, and where disputes and conflicts are resolved in a manner that is both fair and just.

VSAQ-18 : What do you mean by Political Justice?

Political justice signifies the equitable and impartial allocation of political rights and opportunities to all adult citizens within a state, without any form of discrimination related to factors like race, gender, or social status. It guarantees that each individual possesses the entitlement to engage in the political activities of the nation, including voting and candidacy for public office. Political justice is founded on the principle of equality and strives to ensure that every citizen’s voice is acknowledged and accounted for in the governance of the nation. It underpins a democratic and inclusive political system that values the participation of all members of society.

VSAQ-19 : What do you know about Social Justice? (OR) What do you mean by social Justice?

Social justice pertains to the equitable and just allocation of resources, opportunities, and privileges within a society, with the objective of fostering a fair and egalitarian community. It centers on eradicating discrimination and prejudices rooted in factors such as race, caste, gender, or socioeconomic status. Social justice addresses critical concerns like poverty, unemployment, accessibility to education and healthcare, and various other social disparities. Through the promotion of inclusiveness and equal chances, social justice seeks to empower individuals and cultivate a more harmonious and equitable society where the rights and dignity of every person are upheld and valued.

  1. Protection of Rights: Ensuring that individual rights and freedoms are preserved and respected under the law.
  2. Impartiality and Fairness: Requiring equal treatment and fairness in legal proceedings, irrespective of an individual’s status.

VSAQ-21 : What are the views of Aristotle on Justice?

Aristotle’s perspective on justice is rooted in the belief that justice is attained when individuals fulfill their moral responsibilities and obligations within society. He underscores the significance of virtuous conduct and equitable treatment of others. Aristotle’s concept of justice is intricately connected to the notions of moral virtue and the pursuit of the common good. He regards justice as a virtue that fosters harmonious coexistence among individuals and upholds social order. Aristotle’s views on justice provided a foundational framework for ethical theories and discussions regarding the nature of justice in philosophy and political thought, leaving a lasting impact on the field.

VSAQ-22 : What are the views of plato on Justice?

Plato’s perspectives on justice are centered on the notion that it entails giving each individual their due in accordance with their nature and abilities. He posited that justice is realized when every facet of society operates in harmony, with reason governing the state, courage defending it, and appetites satisfying the needs of the people. In Plato’s renowned work, “The Republic,” he explores the concept of justice within the framework of an ideal city-state, wherein individuals possess distinct roles and responsibilities. Plato’s understanding of justice transcends mere fairness and encompasses the proper functioning and balance of the entire society.

VSAQ-23 : What is Power?

Power is defined as the capability of an individual or a group to achieve objectives or exert influence over others. It encompasses the capacity to control or direct the actions and decisions of others to attain desired outcomes. The exercise of power may employ various methods, including authority, persuasion, coercion, or manipulation. Power holds substantial importance in the realms of politics, social interactions, and organizational dynamics, as it molds the relationships among individuals and groups within society.

VSAQ-24 : What is Authority?

Authority is defined as the legitimate power or right to exercise control and make decisions within a specific domain. It represents the capacity to command obedience and earn respect from others, grounded in acknowledged rules or laws. Individuals vested with authority bear the responsibility of formulating and implementing decisions on behalf of a group or organization. Authority frequently correlates with leadership roles in government, institutions, or other societal structures, playing a crucial role in sustaining order and stability within society.

VSAQ-25 : What are the formal organs of power in the state?

  1. Executive: Enforces laws, led by the head of state and government.
  2. Legislative: Makes laws, composed of elected representatives.
  3. Judicial: Interprets and applies laws through courts and judges.
  4. Bureaucracy: Assists in policy administration.
  5. Military/Defense: Ensures national security.
  6. Police/Law Enforcement: Maintains internal security.
  7. Election Commissions: Oversees fair elections.
  8. Central Bank: Regulates monetary policy.