6 Most VSAQ’s of Biological Classification Chapter in Inter 1st Year Botany (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : How are ‘viroids’ different from ‘viruses’?


  1. Viroids affect plants.
  2. They lack a protein coat.
  3. Their genetic material is RNA.


  1. Viruses can infect all types of organisms.
  2. They have a protein coat.
  3. Their genetic material can be RNA or DNA.

VSAQ-2 : What do the terms phycobiont and mycobiont signify?

  1. Phycobiont denotes the algal component of lichen, responsible for photosynthesis.
  2. Mycobiont signifies the fungal component of lichen, providing structure and protection.

VSAQ-3 : What do the terms ‘algal bloom’ and ‘red tides’ signify?

  1. Algal bloom signifies excessive algae growth in water bodies, leading to eutrophication.
  2. Red tides indicate a rapid increase in red dinoflagellates in the marine environment, causing the water to appear red.

VSAQ-4 : State two economically important uses of heterotrophic bacteria.

  1. Curd Production: Heterotrophic bacteria, particularly species like Lactobacillus, are instrumental in the process of making curd from milk through fermentation. This plays a significant role in the dairy industry.
  2. Industrial Production: Heterotrophic bacteria are crucial in the production of several economically valuable products, including alcohol, antibiotics, enzymes, and amino acids. These bacteria are extensively utilized in various industries to manufacture these important substances for a wide range of applications.

VSAQ-5 : What is the principle underlying the use of cyanobacteria in agricultural fields for crop improvement?

The principle behind using cyanobacteria in agricultural fields for crop improvement is their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc and Anabaena, possess the enzyme dinitrogenase, enabling them to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form within specialized cells called heterocysts.

VSAQ-6 : Name two diseases caused by Mycoplasmas.

  1. Mycoplasma pneumonia: This disease is a respiratory infection in humans, often referred to as atypical pneumonia. It manifests with symptoms such as cough, fever, and difficulty breathing.
  2. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP): Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is responsible for this highly contagious respiratory disease in cattle. It can lead to severe lung damage and has significant economic implications in the livestock industry.