7 Most VSAQ’s of Breathing and Exchange of Gases Chapter in Inter 2nd Year Zoology (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Define vital capacity. What is its significance.

Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking a deep breath. In the human body, it typically ranges from 3.5 to 4.5 liters. Its significance lies in facilitating the exchange of gases between the body tissues and the environment. By allowing for deeper inhalation and exhalation, vital capacity helps supply fresh air and expel stale air, enhancing the efficiency of breathing and oxygen uptake.

VSAQ-2 : What is the effect of pCO2 on oxygen transport?

The effect of pCO2 on oxygen transport is significant. In the alveolus, where pCO2 is low and pO2 is high, it promotes the formation of hemoglobin. Conversely, at the tissues, where pCO2 is high and pO2 is low, it encourages the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin. As pCO2 decreases in the blood, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen increases. This allows oxygen to be transported in the blood as oxyhemoglobin and released at the tissues for cellular use.

VSAQ-3 : What happens to the respiratory process in a man going up a hill?

As a man goes up a hill, the respiratory process is affected due to the decrease in atmospheric oxygen at higher altitudes. Less oxygen is available with each breath, leading to reduced oxygen content in the blood. To compensate, the respiratory rate increases to try and obtain more oxygen. Additionally, the heart rate also increases to enhance the delivery of oxygen to the blood and body tissues, helping the body adapt to the lower oxygen levels at higher altitudes.

VSAQ-4 : What is tidal volume? Find out the tidal volume (approximate value) in a healthy human. In an hour.

Tidal volume is the amount of air breathed in and out during a single respiratory cycle while at rest. In a healthy human, the approximate tidal volume is about 500 ml. On average, a healthy person breathes 12-16 times per minute. Therefore, in an hour, a healthy individual can breathe approximately 6,000 to 8,000 ml of air per minute or 360 liters to 480 liters of air per hour.

VSAQ-5 : What is meant by chloride shift?

Chloride shift refers to the exchange of chloride ions (Cl-) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) between red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma at the tissues. This process helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body and is crucial for proper oxygen and carbon dioxide transport.

VSAQ-6 : What are conchae?

Conchae are curved bones found in the upper part of the nasal cavity. They include the inferior concha, middle concha, and superior concha. These bones are also known as turbinate bones. They play a vital role in the respiratory system by increasing the surface area of the nasal cavity, helping to humidify, filter, and warm the air we breathe before it reaches the lungs.

VSAQ-7 : Mention any two occupational respiratory disorders and their causes in human beings.

Two occupational respiratory disorders are

  1. Asbestosis: This condition is caused by prolonged exposure to asbestos dust, commonly found in industries where asbestos is used. The inhalation of asbestos fibers leads to scarring of the lung tissue, causing breathing difficulties.
  2. Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis (CWP) or Black Lung Disease: This lung disease develops in individuals who work in coal mines and are exposed to coal dust over extended periods. Inhaling coal dust leads to the accumulation of particles in the lungs, causing inflammation, scarring, and impaired lung function.