10 Most VSAQ’s of Organs of Government Chapter in Inter 1st Year Political Science (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : How many organs of government are there? What are they? (OR) How many organs of government are there? (OR) How many organs of government are there? Name them. (OR) How many organs of government are there? Explain their functions briefly.

  1. Legislative Branch: This branch is responsible for making and enacting laws. It consists of elected representatives who draft, debate, and pass legislation. The legislative branch represents the interests of the people and ensures that the government operates within the framework of the law.
  2. Executive Branch: The executive branch is responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws passed by the legislature. It includes the head of state and the head of government, who manage government agencies, oversee foreign relations, and administer daily governance.
  3. Judicial Branch: The judicial branch interprets and upholds the laws of the country. It includes the court system and judges who hear cases, resolve disputes, and ensure the fair and just application of laws.

VSAQ-2 : What is meant by theory of separation of powers?

The theory of separation of powers, introduced by Montesquieu, suggests that government powers should be divided and distributed among three separate branches: the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. Each branch has distinct functions and responsibilities, and no one branch should have complete control over the others. This separation ensures a system of checks and balances, where each branch can prevent the abuse of power by the others, promoting the protection of individual liberties and preventing tyranny.

VSAQ-3 : What is meant by plural executive?

The plural executive refers to a system of government where the executive power is divided among multiple individuals or bodies rather than being vested in a single individual or a president. In this system, powers are shared among various officials or executive bodies, such as a council of ministers, a federal council, or a presidium. Plural executive is often seen in parliamentary governments or federal systems, where power is distributed among different entities to ensure a balance of authority and prevent concentration of power in one person or office.

VSAQ-4 : What is judicial review?

Judicial review is the process by which courts examine the laws and actions of the legislative and executive branches of government to ensure they are in accordance with the constitution. This concept was formally established in the United States through the landmark Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison. In this process, courts have the authority to declare laws or government actions as unconstitutional if they violate the principles outlined in the constitution. Not all countries follow this practice, and the extent of judicial review can vary depending on the legal system and constitution of each nation.

VSAQ-5 : Council of states.

The Council of States is the upper house of the Federal Assembly in Switzerland. It serves as a representation of the states or cantons in the central government. Members of the Council of States are elected by the constituents of each canton. This house plays a crucial role in Switzerland’s federal system, ensuring that the interests and concerns of the individual cantons are represented at the national level.

VSAQ-6 : Parliamentary executive.

In a parliamentary executive system, the executive branch of government is responsible and accountable to the parliament. It is the form of government followed in countries like India. In this system, the head of the government (usually the Prime Minister) is a member of the parliament and is appointed based on the support of the majority party or coalition in the parliament. The government remains in power as long as it enjoys the confidence of the majority in the parliament. This system allows for a close relationship between the executive and legislative branches, enabling smoother governance and quicker decision-making.

VSAQ-7 : What is Bi – cameralism?

Bi-cameralism is a system of having two separate chambers or houses in the legislature. One is the upper house (often called the Senate or House of Lords), and the other is the lower house (usually called the House of Representatives or House of Commons). Both houses work together to pass laws and make decisions, but each has its specific roles and functions. The upper house typically represents broader regions or states, and its members may have longer terms. The lower house usually represents the population directly through elected representatives and plays a more active role in proposing and amending legislation. This system provides checks and balances and ensures a more thorough examination of proposed laws. Examples of countries with bicameral legislatures include the United States, the United Kingdom, India, and Australia.

VSAQ-8 : Judicial activism.

Judicial activism is an approach taken by judges to interpret the law in a more dynamic and socially progressive manner. It involves departing from traditional legal precedents to promote and protect new social policies and rights. Judges who engage in judicial activism often use their authority to address contemporary issues and bring about social change through their rulings. This approach is seen as a way for the judiciary to play an active role in shaping society and ensuring justice and equality. However, critics argue that it may encroach upon the powers of other branches of government and undermine the principle of separation of powers.

VSAQ-9 : Senate

In the United States, the Senate is indeed the upper house of the bicameral legislature (Congress). However, it is not directly involved in appointing judges. The process of appointing federal judges, including Supreme Court justices, is carried out by the President of the United States. The President nominates candidates for judicial positions, and the Senate’s role is to provide “advice and consent” on these nominations. This means that the Senate must confirm or reject the President’s judicial nominees through a majority vote before they can take office. This system is a key part of the checks and balances in the U.S. government to ensure a fair and impartial judiciary.

VSAQ-10 : House of lords

The House of Lords is the upper house of the UK Parliament, consisting of appointed members, including life peers, bishops, and hereditary peers. It reviews and suggests amendments to bills from the House of Commons, offers expertise, but cannot ultimately block legislation. It is an essential part of the UK’s bicameral legislative system.