8 Most VSAQ’s of Indian Constitution Historical Background Chapter in Inter 2nd Year Political Science (TS/AP)

2 Marks

VSAQ-1 : Moderates in Indian National Movement (OR) Moderates.

The Moderates were important leaders during the Indian National Movement who believed in peaceful methods to express their demands. Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopala Krishna Gokhale, and Surendra Nath Benarjee were some of the prominent leaders during this phase. They thought that the British rulers followed Liberalism and Democracy and used peaceful methods like mediation, petitions, protests, and prayers to express their demands.

VSAQ-2 : Methods of Extremists. (OR) Write about the methods of Extremist.

The Extremists used various protest methods during the Indian National Movement:

  1. Passive Resistance: They peacefully resisted British laws and actions.
  2. Encouraging Education: They promoted education to empower people.
  3. Boycotting: They boycotted British government offices, titles, and goods.
  4. Swadeshi Movement: They supported Indian-made goods to reduce dependence on British products.
  5. Festivals and Unity: They organized festivals to bring people together and spread the idea of self-rule.

VSAQ-3 : Civil Disobedience Movement.

The Civil Disobedience Movement began on March 12, 1930, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress. Gandhi and his 78 followers embarked on a 240-mile march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi village, where they openly defied the salt laws. This movement is often referred to as the Salt Satyagraha Movement. It played a pivotal role in uniting the people of India and igniting a profound sense of national pride.

VSAQ-4 : Minto Morley Reforms Act.

The Minto Morley Reforms Act, also known as the Minto-Morley Reforms Act of 1909, was a significant legislative measure introduced by Lord Minto, the Viceroy of India, and Lord John Morley, the Secretary of State for India. This act consisted of two key provisions:

  1. Expansion of Legislative Council: The act led to an increase in the number of members in the central legislative council from 16 to 60. This expansion can be likened to inviting more individuals to a gathering, allowing a broader range of voices to be heard.
  2. Indirect Election System: The act introduced a novel method of selecting representatives through an “indirect election” system. This system can be compared to friends selecting someone to speak on their behalf in a game or competition.

The Minto Morley Reforms Act was a significant development in the gradual progression towards political reforms in British India.

VSAQ-5 : Constituent Assembly.

The Constituent Assembly was a group responsible for drafting the Constitution of India. It had 389 members elected by the people, and it established 22 committees to create the constitution. Prominent leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Rajendra Prasad, Sarojini Naidu, and Moulana Azad played crucial roles in this process.

VSAQ-6 : Drafting Committee.

The Drafting Committee was one of the 22 committees formed by the Constituent Assembly to create the Constitution of India. It was led by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and included other key members such as Syed Mohammed Sadulla, D.P. Khaitan, B.L. Mitter, N. Gopala Swamy Iyyengar, Dr. K.M. Munshi, and Sir Alladi Krishna Swamy. This committee played a pivotal role in the drafting of the Constitution, ensuring that the rules and laws were well-crafted for the country’s governance.

VSAQ-7 : Preamble of the Indian Constitution. (OR) Preamble.

The Preamble of the Indian Constitution serves as an introduction that outlines the fundamental values, goals, and aspirations of the nation. It represents a promise and determination for the future of the country. Through the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976, the Preamble was made even more inclusive. It begins with the phrase “we the people of India,” emphasizing that the ultimate authority and power in the constitution come from the people. It serves as a collective message expressing the vision and desired characteristics of our nation.

VSAQ-8 : Universal adult franchise.

Universal adult franchise in India is a constitutional provision that grants the right to vote to all adult citizens regardless of their caste, religion, language, region, or gender. This means that every eligible person in India, aged 18 and above, can participate in the democratic process by casting their vote in elections, whether at the national, state, or local levels. This right ensures that every citizen has a say in choosing their leaders and representatives, shaping the future of the nation. In 1988, the minimum voting age was reduced from 21 to 18 years, allowing young adults to participate fully in the electoral process.